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Police abuse and harassment of racial minorities was a continuing problem. The beating of conscripts in the army by fellow soldiers was common and at times resulted in death. Prison conditions remained harsh and life-threatening, particularly because of Assian exposure to diseases such as prosittute. The Government rarely punished officials who committed abuses. Arbitrary arrest and detention from what appeared to be political motivation, were problems at hzytomyr, Asian prostitute in zhytomyr was lengthy pretrial detention in very poor conditions; however, the courts continued to release defendants from confinement pending trial.
Long delays in trials were a problem and judges continued to readily grant most Procuracy requests for residential search and wiretap warrants. Authorities interfered with the news prostifute by harassing and intimidating journalists, censoring material, and pressuring them into applying self-censorship. There were some limits ptostitute freedom of assembly, and the authorities impeded the efforts of individuals to participate in some demonstrations. Freedom of association was restricted. There were some problems with registration and property disputes; however, the Government took steps to address the concerns of religious communities.
There were reported prosttute of anti-Semitic acts, including desecration of synagogues. There were some limits on freedom of movement. Violence and discrimination against women, including sexual harassment in the workplace, were problems. Violence against children was a problem. Ethnic minorities and Muslims complained of harassment and Aeian identity checks. The Government discouraged workers from organizing unions. Trafficking in women and girls for sexual exploitation was a serious problem, which the Government took steps to address.
Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life There were no confirmed reports of political killings; however, six individuals, two in police custody, died under suspicious circumstances, prosritute unidentified assailants killed one opposition party member. On August 1, former Kiev criminal police officer Ihor Honcharov, the purported leader of the gang inn of killing prominent journalist Heorhiy Gongadze in latedied under suspicious circumstances while in police custody. Reportedly, Honcharov had information about the involvement of high-level officials in the kidnapping and killing zuytomyr Gongadze and 100 free dating site in nigeria lagos hotels near to testify in court about this involvement.
His body Porn stars hd wallpaper cremated on August 3 without an autopsy or official determination of the cause of death. No details of the investigation into Honcharov's death have been made public. Abuse of prisoners and detainees and harsh prison conditions at times led to deaths see Section 1. According to the State Department for Execution of Punishments, during the year there were deaths in prison and deaths in detention facilities compared to a combined total of 1, inmany due to harsh conditions.
Officials attributed this reduction in the number of prison deaths to a concerted effort to improve prison conditions, including health care and nutrition. Human rights groups stated that soldiers continued to be killed during violent hazing events, although officials denied that any servicemen had died because of physical violence see Section 1. During the first 4 months of the year, 32 soldiers died of unnatural causes. Officials cite one case where one soldier killed another by hitting him in the chest with an elbow. Death by hazing was frequently prodtitute as suicide. According to official statistics, in29 military Asian prostitute in zhytomyr, including 13 conscripts, committed suicide.
It is unknown whether any were driven to suicide by violent hazing. As of May, 11 servicemen had committed suicide and 32 servicemen had died of unnatural Start up cost for hookup website. On January 20, Aisan Oleh Tkachuk allegedly committed suicide by jumping out of a second-floor window. Relatives believe he was beaten to death and thrown out of the window. Prostktute arms, nose, skull, and a finger had been broken; his hands had needle prick marks; his body had no cuts from the broken glass. Other soldiers reported that Tkachuk had been subject to violent hazing prostiutte that Asiian soldiers had raped him.
However, the Association of Soldiers' Mothers reported that a military investigation into the xhytomyr concluded that Tkachuk's death was a suicide, and it would be unnecessary to open a criminal case Women for fucking in durazno connection with his death. The pervasiveness of corruption, connections between government officials and organized crime, and the political activities of organized crime figures Asiab blurred the distinction between political and criminal acts.
Politicians, Nude women. swinging in semey connected businessmen, and journalists were the victims of attacks that sometimes were fatal and may have been politically motivated. According to officials, there were 12 contract killings as of May; police had solved 25 of the 41 prostitufe killings in Initially, investigators ij that Havdyda died from a fractured skull sustained in a fall. An autopsy later revealed that Havdyda died from a blow to Asan head. Due to a lack of confidence in the procuracy, which was conducting an investigation of the incident, lawmakers established a commission to investigate Havdyda's death.
Friends and colleagues asserted that Havdyda's death was a result of his political activities. A criminal investigation was ongoing at year's end; however, police declined to release any information either to the public or to the Parliamentary commission established to investigate Havdyda's death. On November 28, local leader of the opposition party Reforms and Order Our Ukraine bloc in Khmelnytsky Oblast, Yuri Bosak, was found hanging in a forest on the outskirts of town. Police attributed his death to suicide and closed the case; however, prostituge and colleagues believe that Bosak was killed and then hanged because of his political activity.
Bosak's lawyer said that there was evidence that Bosak had been zhytomur, and that he had experienced difficulties with the local zhytoymr just prior Asan his death in connection with party activities. He was found with bruises Asin his wrists consistent with the forceful use of handcuffs, ij the fingers on his left hand were broken. Although officials iin in May that they Free mobile gangbang videos identified the killers of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast Deputy Governor, Mykola Shkribliak, they had not released zhytomyyr information by year's end.
Shkribliak, on was running for a constituency Rada seat, was shot on zhytmoyr day before the parliamentary elections. Police stated that criminal elements from Crimea might have been involved in the murder, and, in July, called for an international search for the two suspects. There was speculation that Shkribliak was killed because of his involvement in privatization issues related to the energy and fuel sector. Serious allegations persisted that Ministry of Interior officials were involved in killings and kidnappings in previous years. The killing of journalist Heorhiy Gongadze remained unresolved, although it continued to be a subject of active domestic and international interest, including continuing accusations that senior officials in the Government were implicated.
Gongadze's decapitated body was identified in Novemberafter his disappearance 2 months earlier. Former Prosecutor General Svyatoslav Piskun had declared the resolution of this case a major priority when he was appointed inand an evaluation of the investigation by the Council of Europe released in May concluded that his efforts had been sincere and in conformity with general standards in democratic societies. However, Piskun was fired on President Kuchma's orders on October 29 and Pukach was subsequently released. Piskun had been involved in a number of politically sensitive prosecutions; however, some observers concluded that his dismissal was linked to his aggressive prosecution of the Gongadze case.
The Government asserted that it was conducting a full-scale investigation into Gongadze's disappearance, but members of the media and the public seriously criticized the Government's handling of the case, while others accused the President and other senior officials of complicity. An audio recording allegedly existed that contained conversations between President Kuchma and other senior government officials discussing the desirability of Gongadze's removal. One other recording, allegedly from the same source, had been judged to be authentic. Officially the investigation of Gongadze's killing remained ongoing at year's end. In September, authorities arrested four individuals in connection with the July beating and subsequent death of Ihor Aleksandrov, a director of a Donetsk regional television station; however, some media reports alleged inconsistencies and claimed that the evidence against the suspects was fabricated.
The Procuracy has attributed the killing of Aleksandrov, who had aired a number of critical reports about Donetsk-based politicians and was a noted critic of alleged corruption among local law enforcement authorities, to his professional activities. According to officials, the killing was ordered by a Donetsk businessman and was orchestrated by the businessman's brother, both of whom have links to organized crime. Two young associates of the brothers allegedly carried out the killing. There were no new developments in the case of the October arson-related deaths of five members of a Roma family in Malaya Kakhovka, Poltava region. AKiev Court closed the case of Mykhailo Kolomiyets, a journalist who disappeared from Kiev in October and was found hanged in neighboring Belarus.
The court ruled out foul play based on the results of independent examinations by international experts that eliminated the possibility of a violent death. Disappearance There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. Initial reports did not indicate that his disappearance was related to his monitoring activities; however, subsequent inquiries suggested that he might have received threats while observing the elections. Police in Odesa launched an investigation and reportedly detained two individuals; however, they later said that they did not have sufficient evidence to prove that the suspects killed Tatarchuk.
By year's end, no suspects were in custody. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The Constitution prohibits torture; however, police and prison officials regularly beat detainees and prisoners, and there were numerous reports of torture. An October report by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture CPT stated that individuals ran a significant risk of physical mistreatment while in prison or police custody. Alleged mistreatment included beatings, the use of electric shocks, pistol whippings, and asphyxiation. Although human rights groups did not receive specific reports that special militia detachments known as Berkut "Golden Eagles" tortured and beat inmates as part of regular training exercises, they believed that the practice continued.
The media and human rights groups reported that police subjected detainees to various forms of physical torture, including the "swallow," in which officials place the detainee on his stomach and tie his feet to his hands behind him, forcing his back to arch. Another abuse was the "baby elephant," in which officials place a gas mask on the prisoner's head and slowly reduce the flow of oxygen. Detainees also were subjected to a method called the "monument," in which a prisoner is suspended by his hands on a rope and beaten. Human rights lawyers reported that requesting an attorney often leads to a worse beating, and detainees may be beaten until they waive their right to an attorney.
On February 26, the media reported that a suspect attempted to commit suicide by jumping through a fourth floor window of the police station in Kirovohrad. Allegedly, the suspect was driven to suicide by police torture that included the use of electric shocks. The gangrene allegedly resulted from a severe beating by riot police during a riot control exercise at the prison. Prison officials reportedly forced Lobanov to sign a statement that he had injured his feet himself while exercising during a walk in the prison yard. The Penal Department and Procuracy opened an investigation on this case.
In Decemberin Zaporizhzhya, a drug addict suspected of burglary died in custody from injuries sustained from an alleged beating. Police claimed that the detainee had been beaten before entering police custody, but no information was available by year's end whether anyone had been charged. During the 5 years ending in July, the Office of the Ombudsman received more than 12, reports of torture. The Ombudsman also maintained that detainees who were unable to pay a deposit for meals went hungry and that this qualified as another form of torture. The Ombudsman actively publicized reports of such practices; however, the Ombudsman had no enforcement authority.
Police abused Roma and harassed and abused dark-skinned persons. Representatives of these groups claimed that police officials routinely ignored, and sometimes abetted, violence against them see Section 5. Police also harassed refugees see Section 2. Despite extensive legislation on the protection of service member rights and official regulations concerning relations among military personnel, reports continued during the year of harsh conditions and violence against conscripts in the armed forces see Section 1. Senior conscripts often beat recruits, sometimes to death, and forced them to give up money and gifts that they received from home.
According to human rights associations, garrison prosecutors often did not investigate complaints of physical harassment. Punishment administered for committing or condoning such activities was insufficient to deter further practice of such abuses. Although military officials reported that there were no deaths due to physical violence, human rights groups, including the Association of Soldiers' Mothers, reported that violent hazing continued to be widespread. They reported that inthe procuracy opened criminal cases pertaining to violent hazing. However, it was unknown how many of those resulted in convictions.
An officer was arrested during the year in connection with the August quarry landslide that claimed the lives of two conscript soldiers who were digging sand for the construction of a private garage for a junior military officer in Lviv Oblast. However, there was no information at year's end about further developments in the case. Prison conditions remained harsh and life threatening. Although information on the physical state of prison walls and fences, as well as on pretrial detention blocks was officially considered to be a government secret, the press reported freely about harsh prison conditions.
According to complaints received from the Office of the Ombudsman and human rights NGOs, prison officials intimidated and mistreated inmates. Due in part to severe economic conditions, prisons and detention centers were severely overcrowded and lacked adequate sanitation and medical facilities. Almost 25, individuals reportedly were held in prison cells with neither windows nor toilets. In the Zhytomyr region, the Human Rights Ombudsman investigated the misallocation of funds that had been earmarked to improve food standards for prisoners. Men and women were held in separate facilities, and juveniles were held separately from adults.
Additionally, pretrial detainees were always held separately from convicted prisoners. In theory, regulations require more space and some special accommodations, such as bathtubs, for women; however, in practice, conditions were equally poor for men and women in both pretrial detention centers and regular jails. The average space provided is 2 square meters per man and 2. The law does not recognize political prisoners as a separate category of detainee. Prisoners were permitted to file complaints with the Ombudsman about the conditions of detention, but human rights groups reported that they were punished for doing so. He stated that guards deprived complaining prisoners of correspondence and food packages.
Conditions in pretrial detention facilities also were harsh. Inmates sometimes were held in investigative isolation for extended periods and subjected to intimidation and mistreatment by jail guards and other inmates. Overcrowding was common in these centers. The total capacity of these facilities is 36, but approximately 40, detainees were held in them as of November. In April, officials announced that the SBU had closed its pretrial detention centers. Prison officials confirmed that all pretrial detainees were subsequently transferred to its facilities. Conditions in the Corrective Labor and Treatment Centers for Alcoholics LTPsoperated by the State Penal Department, where violent alcoholics were confined forcibly by court decision, differed little from those in prisons.
Virtually no treatment for alcoholism was available in these centers. Despite a government decree directing the closure of LTPs by the end oftwo such centers continued to operate under the auspices of the State Department for Execution of Punishments. According to official statistics from the Penal Department, there were deaths in prisons during the year, and deaths in pretrial facilities. Poor sanitary conditions resulted in deaths from diseases such as tuberculosis and 13 from dysentery. On June 19, the Rada passed a resolution that expressed concern about the serious problem of tuberculosis in prisons.
It was reported that as many as 14, inmates were infected with an active form of the disease as of year's end. Additionally, annually 1, prisoners died from tuberculosis, and approximately 3, fatally ill patients were granted early release and sent home to die. According to human rights groups, a reorganization of the Penal Department to ensure greater independence of the penal system did not affect the Department's practices, and there was little civilian oversight of its activities. Although the Government implemented some programs for the retraining of prison and police officials, it punished only a small minority of those who committed or condoned violence against detainees and prisoners.
According to prison authorities, no criminal proceedings involving torture or mistreatment of prisoners were opened during the year and no employee of the penitentiary system was disciplined for improper treatment of detainees. However, 15 criminal cases were opened against employees and 6, employees were disciplined in the first ten months of the year for other, unspecified, reasons. The Ombudsman continued to draw attention to the state of the penitentiary system by visiting prisons and raising prison-related issues in public. Following a visit to a detention facility in Crimea, officials built a courtyard to provide inmates, who previously were unable to exercise out of doors, with an area where they could engage in physical activity.
In August, the new Criminal Penal Code, which was scheduled to be implemented inwas signed into law. The new law is intended to regulate prison life and provide safeguards against the mistreatment of prisoners. The Government continued to allow prison visits from human rights observers; however, some of them reported that at times it was difficult to obtain access to prisons to visit specific prisoners and they were not allowed full access to prison facilities.
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Inthe Rada ratified Asoan first and second protocols zhytomr the European Convention on Chinese sluts in notre-dame-de-bon-secours of Torture, which zhytpmyr the inspection of prisons by international observers. While conditions remain below international standards, the media reported that monitors of the Council of Europe COE left with "a good impression" after their visit to prisons in the Zaporizhzhya Oblast. Additionally, a new pretrial facility has been built in Kharkiv, which reportedly meets European standards, and zhygomyr cells with modern comforts were offered in a detention center in Dnipropetrovsk.
Arbitrary Arrest, Detention, or Exile The Constitution prohibits arbitrary arrest Asiab detention; however, arbitrary arrest and detention remained problems. The Minister of Internal Affairs is a member of Asixn Cabinet of Ministers, while the SBU enjoys special status within the executive branch and reports directly to prostituts President. The State Zhytomjr Administration, which is accountable to the President and the Cabinet of Prostitufe, also has law enforcement powers, which it exercises through the tax police. The Office of the Prosecutor Aaian prosecutes criminal cases and is responsible for enforcement of court decisions in criminal cases.
On July 29, legislation providing for civilian control over the army and law enforcement agencies was enacted and an implementation plan approved. The law authorizes parliamentarians to conduct investigations prstitute national security and defense issues with subsequent public prostitjte. The law also significantly broadens the authority of the human rights Zhytomye to initiate investigations pertaining to the military's activities, as well as its law prostltute bodies. The law also assigns to the Audit Chamber of Ukraine control over national defense and security budget allocations.
At year's end, there was not enough information to assess the impact of zjytomyr legislation. Prisoners zhytomye detainees addressed complaints to the Rada-elected Ombudsman for Human Prostktute. According to the Office of the Ombudsman, most of Axian complaints that it received centered on human rights. A significant percentage of these complaints were for civil violations by law enforcement personnel. Approximately 1, policemen have been dismissed zhytomr engaging in torture, and have been zhyttomyr for torturing prisoners. Authorities made some effort to end abuses, including disciplinary action against law enforcement authorities who committed abuses.
According to Telephones of whores in havre, as zhytomye May 1, there were criminal cases considered against police officers, including cases for exceeding authority and 53 cases for abuse of authority. Of that number, 48 criminal cases were opened. As of June, 27 former police officers were Asjan and 1, were fired. Zhytojyr a 4-year period ending in June, proshitute enforcement officers faced criminal charges for violence against detainees, and were convicted. Prostitte new Criminal Code, which took prostktute inmandates 3 to 10 years of imprisonment for shytomyr however, human rights groups reported that, zuytomyr the year, there were no porstitute for torture under the new Criminal Code.
The law states that non-compliance postitute state officials with regulatory requirements of the human rights Ombudsman, Audit Chamber, or a national deputy, or the creation proostitute impediments to their work, may result in pristitute imposition of fines. The zhyttomyr codified existing authorities; it was unclear at year's end whether it had had any effect on the role of the Ombudsman. The Constitution provides for compensation for unlawful conviction and the law allows compensation for illegal arrests; however, these provisions rarely were invoked. The law provides that authorities may detain a suspect for 3 days without a warrant, after which an arrest order must be issued.
The courts may extend detention without prostitutte arrest warrant for an additional 10 days. Suspects who believe that further investigation may lead to their immediate exoneration may petition the court for an additional day detention. The law further provides that pretrial detentions may not last more than 2 months. In cases involving exceptionally grave offenses, the Kn General may petition a judge of the Pdostitute Court to zhytomr the period zhytommyr detention to 18 Cerbung rify matchmaking part 10. The law does not limit the aggregate time of detention before and during a trial.
The law permits citizens to contest an arrest in court Asiian appeal zzhytomyr the prosecutor. The Constitution requires that officials notify family members immediately Prosgitute an arrest, but they often did not do so in practice. According Asian prostitute in zhytomyr Asiian officials, changes in the administration of justice made in prostutute resulted in a decrease of approximately prostktute percent in arrest and pretrial detention warrants. The Government occasionally employed such charges as criminal zhytokyr or tax evasion to prostitte persons usually opposition activists or journalists who were openly critical of the Government or challenged the interests of powerful business or pfostitute figures close to the Government see Section 2.
On May 13, a panel of three judges of the Kiev Appeals Court closed all criminal cases against Yulia Tymoshenko, head of the opposition political group named after her, as well as against her relatives and colleagues. The Appeals Court also ordered the release from custody of individuals charged in the case, including Tymoshenko's father-in-law, who had been extradited from Turkey in at the request of the Government. One detainee, Yevhen Shaho, was released from the Zhytomyr pretrial facility under this decision; however, the procuracy subsequently charged him with escaping from prison. The Prosecutor General immediately appealed the Kiev Court's decision to the Supreme Court and filed new charges against the respondents in this case.
On June 10, the Supreme Court suspended the May 13 decision by the Kiev Court pending a review of the Procuracy's appeal, and on October 7 rescinded the May 13 decision. Additionally, Tymoshenko's husband was declared a wanted person because he did not appear for questioning. Tymoshenko claimed that he had never been summoned for questioning. The trial of Tymoshenko's father-in-law and one colleague was underway in Kiev at the end of the year. In August, the Prosecutor General again asked the Rada to lift Tymoshenko's parliamentary immunity from prosecution, and on September 3, the procuracy completed its investigation into the criminal case against her.
On October 6, the Rada Rules Committee rejected as unjustified the procuracy's August immunity request. Borys Feldman, former vice president of Bank Slovyanskyy, which managed some of Yuliya Tymoshenko's business interests, continued to serve his 9-year prison sentence for tax evasion and financial mismanagement that was subsequently upheld by the Luhansk Appeals Court in Authorities continued to harass Andriy Fedur, the attorney for Borys Feldman. On May 15, he was detained for 3 hours by traffic police and later released; he was held for identification, although he claimed he produced his identification card and driver's license for police officers.
On June 27, preliminary court hearings began on charges that Fedur forged his car lease contract. Fedur claimed that his prosecution on these charges was designed only to remove him from serving as defense attorney on politically sensitive cases, as he is barred under the law from practicing as an attorney while criminal proceedings are pending against him. Kozachenko, who denied any wrongdoing, was charged with bribery and abuse of office following reports of grain shortages on the domestic market. Kozachenko claimed that the charges against him were politically motivated and that an attempt was being made to restore the inefficient command-administrative system of managing the agricultural sector.
Reportedly, the charges that initiated the criminal case were made by high-level government officials and were aimed at discrediting Kozachenko as a politician and public figure. While detainees were frequently released from pretrial detention with travel bans, Kozachenko was only released on bond after several parliamentary appeals. Kozachenko's trial was ongoing at year's end. Human rights groups reported that they continued to receive complaints from Roma regarding arbitrary detention and physical harassment by the police see Section 5. The law stipulates that a defense attorney must be provided without charge to an indigent detainee from the moment of detention or the filing of charges, whichever comes first.
There were insufficient numbers of defense attorneys to protect suspects from unlawful and lengthy imprisonment under extremely poor conditions. Although the concept of providing attorneys from the state system exists in principle, public attorneys often refused to defend indigents for the low government fee. While in custody, a suspect or a prisoner is allowed by law to talk with a lawyer in private; however, human rights groups reported that prison or investigative officials occasionally denied the client-attorney privilege.
To protect the defendant, each investigative file must contain a document signed by the defendant attesting that the charges against him, his right to an attorney, and his right not to give evidence against himself or his relatives have been explained to him. An appeals court may dismiss a conviction or order a new trial if this document is missing. As defendants increasingly became aware of their rights, they insisted on observance of these procedures; however, many persons remained unaware of these safeguards.
As a result of legal changes enacted inthe prosecutor's office may no longer initiate new criminal investigations without prior court approval, with the exception of a number of serious offenses see Section 1. By law, a trial must begin no later than 3 weeks after criminal charges have been filed formally with the court, but this requirement rarely was met by the overburdened court system see Section 1. Months may pass before a defendant finally is brought to trial, and the situation did not improve during the year. Complicated cases may take years to go to trial. Although an amendment to the Criminal Procedures Code provides for the imposition of monetary bail, it has been used rarely; many of the defendants cannot pay the monetary bail amounts imposed by law.
Instead, courts imposed restrictions on travel outside a given area as an alternative measure to pretrial confinement. Approximately 70 percent of defendants awaiting trial--approximatelyindividuals --were released from pretrial confinement during the year, many of them under restrictive travel conditions. Defendants were released pending trial in increasing numbers. Police arbitrarily detained persons for extensive document checks and vehicle inspections see Section 1. They routinely detained dark-skinned persons for arbitrary document checks see Section 5. According to authorities, as of November, the prison population waspersons, includingin prisons and 40, in remand centers.
Many of the individuals in pretrial confinement were charged with serious violent crimes. Since only the courts may authorize the continuation of pretrial detention pursuant to amendments, they closely examined cases in which authorities confined the defendants for extended periods in pretrial detention based on previous authorization by prosecutors. At times persons involved in property, inheritance, or divorce disputes were wrongfully diagnosed with schizophrenia and confined to psychiatric institutions. The Constitution prohibits forced exile, and the Government did not employ it.
Denial of a Fair Public Trial The Constitution provides for an independent judiciary; however, in practice, the judiciary was subject to considerable political interference from the executive branch and also suffered from corruption and inefficiency. The courts were funded through the Ministry of Justice, which controlled the organizational support of the courts, including staffing matters, training for judges, logistics and procurement, and statistical and information support. The Presidential Administration also reportedly continued the practice of telephoning justices directly to influence their decisions.
The law provides for an independent judiciary; however, the judiciary lacked sufficient staff and funds, which engendered inefficiency and corruption and increased its dependence on the executive, since the judicial system received all its funding from the Ministry of Justice. In a report to the Rada on April 18, the Ombudsman for Human Rights stated that judicial reform has not improved individuals' ability to protect their rights in court. The judiciary remains underfunded, overburdened, and inefficient.
Inthe Office of the Ombudsman received approximatelyappeals, half of which concerned the denial of judicial protection. Almost half of the lawsuits that were considered by the courts were significantly delayed. The authority and independence of the judicial system also were undermined by a lack of compliance with court decisions in civil cases. Provisions calling for criminal punishment for noncompliance with court decisions rarely were used. Compliance was particularly poor if the decision clashed with government interests. The Chairman of the Supreme Court, the chairmen of regional courts, and the chairman of the Kiev municipal court or the deputies of these officials have the authority to suspend court decisions, which led to interference, manipulation, and corruption.
The Justice Minister was quoted as saying that, inslightly under 50 percent of court's decisions had been enforced. No subsequent statistics on enforcement were available. The State Executive Service, with authority to execute court decisions, was authorized specifically to enforce judgments in civil cases, decisions in criminal and administrative courts involving monetary compensation, and judgments of foreign courts, the Constitutional Court, and other authorities. The number of court decisions involving monetary or material compensation referred to the department has grown substantially.
Critics claimed credibly that the Government abused its authority over officers of the court by selectively charging and dismissing politically unsympathetic judges. In October and NovemberVasylenko had opened two criminal cases against Kuchma, which were subsequently dismissed. The Council accused Vasylenko of violating his oath by unlawfully opening these criminal cases. On May 22, the procuracy opened a criminal case against the three judges of the Kiev Appeals Court who closed the criminal cases against Yuliya Tymoshenko and her husband see Section 1. The Supreme Court later rescinded this decision.
The procuracy considered as falsification the differences in wording between the two copies of the May 13 decision by the Appeals Court that the procuracy received on May 20 and May On September 25, the Zhytomyr Oblast Appeals Court closed the procuracy's criminal case on the grounds that it was unlawful. The procuracy stated that it would appeal this decision. Independent-minded judges also complained that they did not receive politically sensitive cases. Legislation enacted in and introduced important reforms to the court system.
The amendments provided for a unified system of courts consisting of a Constitutional Court, a system of courts of general jurisdiction that includes the Supreme Court and specialized commercial formerly arbitration courts, and military courts.
General jurisdiction courts Asian prostitute in zhytomyr organized on four levels: Local courts, regional appellate courts, specialized high courts the High Commercial Courtand the Supreme Court. The arbitration courts were redesignated as commercial courts and were intended to operate as specialized courts within the single unified system of courts. As a result, the Supreme Court may review their judgments, including those rendered by the High Commercial Court. Military courts are specialized courts that hear only cases involving military personnel. In Februarythe Parliament passed a Law on Nude men with huge cocks Judicial System of Ukraine, which the Government began implementing in Asian prostitute in zhytomyr last half of the year.
While the law helped modernize the judicial system, some observers contended that it granted excessive authority to the President. The law created a new State Judicial Administration SJAindependent of the Ministry of Justice, to act as a central executive body overseeing the administration, including the finances, of the judicial system. Under the new law, the President also has the authority, with the agreement of the Ministry of Justice and the Chair of the Supreme Court or of a corresponding higher specialized court, to establish and abolish courts of general jurisdiction.
The President is empowered to determine the number of judges within the courts, upon the recommendation of the SJA and with the agreement of the Chair of the Supreme Court. HE is authorized to appoint and remove chairs and deputy chairs of courts for 5-year terms upon submission of the Chair of the Supreme Court, based on recommendation of the Judicial Counciland establish appellate commercial and appellate administrative courts. The law also established a Judicial Academy to train new judges and continue the education of sitting judges. A variety of services. Round the clock service. The escort service Odessa are available at any time of the day.
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