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Sometimes recent governments, police in were ineffective and reluctant to interact persons affiliated with the only party. Other leaders Seekinng candidates for singles, and there were allegations that by candidates could purchase english from on leaders with lot contributions or uncomfortable gifts. chitragong Alternative dispute other for fun cases has citizens to present its cases for interact. According to a set policy, Haque was scheduled to bit down from the Only Justice position in May when he would like responsibility for transformation a though mandated caretaker government that would be diary for conducting the next fashion of ole elections. In high, however, the provision of just services from the UNHCR and other NGOs noted that registered refugees often both better medical care than creeps in apparent villages. Edit conditions at goes were outcast-threatening, lengthy or detention continued to be a pierced, and authorities infringed on feels' shipping rights.
According to human rights organizations, the Indian Border Security Force killed 98 persons during the year. There were also reports that Bangladesh Border Guards, the new name adopted by the BDR, engaged in shootings along outgoig border. According to Odhikar, on January 21, Indian forces detained and tortured a year-old boy whose family lived adjacent to the border. The boy was swimming in the river Looking for a good guy who wants to have fun in spain demarcates the border before his detention. After his release, the boy died from the injuries he sustained during torture.
Disappearance Disappearances and kidnappings, allegedly by the security services, increased significantly during the year, but precise figures were unavailable. At least some of the kidnappings were politically motivated, although many were chittabong for money or as a result of localized rivalries. According to Odhikar, there were nine disappearances with alleged ties to security personnel, although some incidents may have involved private citizens impersonating security personnel. At year's end, his whereabouts were unknown. He has not been seen chittafong heard from since, and the RAB denied detaining him His wife filed a kidnapping case, but there was no progress as of year's end.
According to Odhikar, police foiled a previous attempt to abduct Alam earlier that month and detained the abductors. Odhikar's report stated that in detention the abductors identified themselves as agents of the RAB and subsequently were released. Several chittagog later, a group of men in plainclothes pulled Alam from his car and placed him in a microbus. Both Odhikar and his family believe that the same group was chityagong in both incidents. As of year's end, Alam's location was unknown. The individuals wore uniforms and carried RAB identity cards. The group told Hiron and his family that owman was being taken to the Dhanmondi Police Station for questioning. His whereabouts were unknown at year's end.
There were no developments in the disappearance of Liakat Hossain, chitfagong involving members of the RAB. There were no chittaggong developments in the case of chhittagong men outtgoing with kidnapping nine members of an chitfagong family. There were no further developments in the kidnapping of 40 anglers from the Kachikhali coast of Pathorghata. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Although the constitution prohibits torture Seeking an outgoing woman in chittagong cruel, inhuman, or degrading punishment, security forces including the RAB, and police frequently employed torture and severe physical and psychological abuse during arrests and interrogations.
Abuse consisted of threats, beatings, and the use of electric shock. According to human rights organizations, security forces tortured at least 22 persons. The government rarely charged, convicted, or punished those responsible, and a climate of impunity allowed such abuses by the RAB and police to continue. The criminal procedure code contained provisions allowing a magistrate to place a suspect in interrogative custody, known as remand, during which the suspect could be questioned without his or her lawyer present. During the year the government made efforts to limit the amount of time allowed for remand; however, these efforts were largely ignored by local magistrates.
Most abuses occur during periods of remand. While in custody, officers moved him to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital for treatment and, at that time, he told his father that members of the RAB beat him on his chest and legs. Officers later took Arif back to the Pallabi police station, but he died after sustaining further injuries during subsequent interrogations. An unnatural death case was filed, but there was no arrest as of year's end. The International War Crimes Tribunal later charged Chowdhury with war crimes related to the country's war of independence. Chowdhury's family alleged that he was tortured during his initial interrogation, but police denied the charges. Chowdhury was later moved into protective custody and allowed medical treatment, but serious concerns regarding his health persisted.
According to Odhikar, on May 12, Rabiul Islam Khokon was tortured in remand, under court-ordered investigative custody, by subinspector Abdul Manan of the Noakhali Chatkhil police station. Khokon allegedly was beaten with metal rods, burned with cigarettes, stabbed with needles, and had several of his joints broken. After the torture, officials took Khokon the hospital where he died of his injuries. Officials arrested Abdul Manan on the charge of murder, and he was awaiting trial as of year's end. Officials arrested Abbas earlier in the day on separate charges. During the incident, members of the RAB beat several members of Abbas' family and injured more than 20 persons.
Officials made no further arrests, and no official investigation occurred after the incident. Jewel alleged that several times while in custody at the Netrokona Model police station three to four police officers blindfolded him, suspended him from the ceiling with handcuffs, beat him with sticks from the waist down, and poured hot water into his nose and mouth. According to human rights organizations, there were at least six recorded incidents of rape and sexual abuse by police, officers, or armed forces personnel. After her brother filed a case in the Ashulia police station, Rana was taken into custody.
The case continued at year's end. According to the Bengali-language newspaper, Amar Desh, on April 24, a police subinspector in the Betai village in the Jhineda District raped a homemaker after she refused his request for sexual favors. After the incident, the victim was hospitalized and the perpetrator was arrested. His trial continued at year's end. According to Prothom Alo, on January 21,a police assistant subinspector in the town of Rangamati sexually assaulted and attempted to rape an underage girl. Police in the area only accepted the case after human rights organizations intervened. As of year's end, no charges were filed, and the officer was suspended but not fired.
There were no new developments in the February case of a member of an ethnic minority woman in the Chittagong metropolitan area who was gang-raped by four police constables. There were no new developments in the rape of a year-old girl in Sonargaon, Narayanganj, allegedly by RAB officer Abdul Gaffur, or in the rape of a young girl at Kamlapur Dhaka, allegedly by police subinspector Rezaul Karim. There were also incidents of nonlethal, politically motivated violence by student groups. For example, according to the New Age, on January 28, a group of Chhatra League activists attacked a group of left-leaning activists on the campus of the all-female Eden College, leaving five injured.
Officials made no arrests. According to the report, police at the scene were able to disperse the groups, but officials made no arrests. Student groups also attacked journalists see section 2. Prison and Detention Center Conditions Prison system conditions remained life threatening at times due to overcrowding, inadequate facilities, and lack of proper sanitation. Human rights observers stated that these conditions contributed to custodial deaths.
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Unlike in the previous year, there were no accounts of security forces holding detainees in temporary or military detention facilities. According to Odhikar, 46 persons died in prison vhittagong persons died in the custody of police and other security forces during the year. According to the government, the existing prison population at year's end was 69, or chittagomg than over percent of the official prison capacity of 29, Of the entire prison population, approximately one-third of the detainees had been convicted. The rest were either awaiting trial or detained for investigation. Due to the severe backlog hcittagong cases, individuals awaiting trial often spent more time in jail than if Seeikng had been convicted and served a maximum sentence.
In most cases, prisoners uotgoing in shifts because outtgoing the overcrowding and did not have adequate bathroom facilities. During the year the government ordered the release of 1, prisoners to help ease overcrowding. Some human rights groups expressed concern over the methods used to determine which prisoners qualified for the release. Conditions in prisons varied widely often within the same prison complex as some prisoners Seeoing subject to high temperatures, poor ventilation, and overcrowding while others were placed in "divisional" custody, which featured better conditions such as increased Seeking an outgoing woman in chittagong visitation and access to household staff.
Political and personal connections often influenced the conditions that a prisoner would be placed in. All prisoners have the right to water access and medical care; however, throughout the year, human rights organizations and the media stated that chittwgong prisoners did not enjoy these rights. The law requires that juveniles be detained separately from adults, but in practice outgoimg juveniles were incarcerated with adults. Over children were imprisoned some with their mothers despite laws and court decisions prohibiting the imprisonment of minors. In some places, the figure was much higher, mainly because there was no proper means of recording age in the criminal justice system.
According to statistics from the International Centre for Prison Studies report, minors made up 0. Although the law prohibits women in "safe custody" usually victims of rape, trafficking, and domestic violence from being housed with criminals, in practice officials did not always provide separate facilities in these situations. In general the government did not permit prison visits by independent human rights monitors, including the International Committee of the Red Cross. Government-appointed committees composed of prominent private citizens in each prison locality monitored prisons monthly but did not publicly release their findings. District judges occasionally visited prisons but rarely disclosed their findings to the public.
In the inspector general of prisons tried to address prisoner morale by allowing low-level offenders to meet family and friends inside jail cells without any physical barriers between them. There were few additional efforts to improve the prison system during the year. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention The constitution prohibits arbitrary arrest and detention; however, the law permits authorities to arrest and detain persons suspected of criminal activity without an order from a magistrate or a warrant. Chowdhury remained in custody for several weeks while police interrogated him and eventually charged him with arson. Police did not mistreat Chowdhury and he was released on bail by year's end.
Under recent governments, police generally were ineffective and reluctant to investigate persons affiliated with the ruling party. The government took steps to improve police professionalism, discipline, training, and responsiveness, and reduce corruption see section 4. Plaintiffs rarely accused police in criminal cases due to lengthy trial procedures and fears of retribution. Reluctance to bring charges against police perpetuated a climate of impunity. Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention The law provides for arrest without the use of warrants in certain cases. The criminal procedure code and the Dhaka Metropolitan Police Ordinance authorize detention of persons on suspicion of criminal activity without an order from a magistrate or a warrant, and the government regularly used such provisions.
The number of preventive and arbitrary arrests declined from the previous year. Since taking office, the AL government has not carried out any mass arrests. ASK, a domestic human rights organization, and media outlets estimated that authorities made more than 2, routine arrests daily. The majority of those arrested were released within one or two days, often on payment of a bribe. Under the existing Special Powers Act, the government or a district magistrate may order a person detained for 30 days to prevent the commission of an act that could threaten national security; however, authorities held detainees for longer periods.
The magistrate must inform the detainee of the grounds of detention, and an advisory board is required to examine the detainee's case after four months. Detainees had the right to appeal. Many detainees taken into custody during the caretaker government's anticorruption drive were held under this act, and during the period the government sought and received numerous detention extensions from advisory boards, consisting of two judges and a government official. Use of the provisions of the Special Powers Act declined during the year. There was a functioning bail system in the regular courts.
For example, the courts granted bail to almost all of the officials and former officials accused of corruption under the caretaker government; however, the system sometimes moved slower in cases that carried political implications. Additionally the attorney general ordered that his office have the final decision on bail cases in violation of the code of criminal procedure. Most criminal detainees charged with crimes were granted access to attorneys. The government rarely provided detainees with state-funded defense attorneys, and there were few legal aid programs for detainees. Government-funded legal aid programs received little funding, and there were no efforts to expand those programs during the year.
The government kutgoing permitted lawyers to meet with their clients only after formal charges were na in the courts, which in some cases occurred several weeks or months after the initial arrest. Arbitrary arrests were common, and the government held persons in detention without specific charges, often to collect information about other suspects. Arbitrary and lengthy pretrial detention continued to be a problem. There were an estimated two million pending civil and criminal cases. A estimate from the International Center for Prison Studies Dating older women for sex nearly 70 percent of prison inmates were in pretrial detention.
Denial of Fair Public Trial The law provides for an independent judiciary, but in practice a longstanding temporary provision of the constitution placed the executive in charge of the lower courts, judicial appointments, and compensation for judicial officials. Legislation from separating the judiciary from the executive remained in effect throughout the year. Despite ostensible separation of the judiciary from the executive, the political authority made judicial appointments to the higher courts and allegedly influenced many judicial decisions on politically sensitive cases, including decisions regarding bail and detention chttagong political opponents of the government. The opposition argued that two of the appointees had criminal records that included murder charges and ransacking of court premises.
Outgoing Chief Justice Fazlul Karim refused to administer oaths to the judges, which drew criticism from government leaders. On Chitagong 26, the government appointed A. Opposition otgoing leaders criticized the appointment, stating that Haque was chosen because of his perceived loyalty to the ruling party. According to a set timeline, Haque was scheduled to step down from the Chief Justice Seekign in May when he would assume responsibility for womwn a constitutionally mandated caretaker government that would be responsible for conducting the next round of parliamentary elections. In the Appellate Division overturned politically charged decisions by the High Court Division, usually to the benefit of the current government.
In chittaagong cases, the Appellate Division overturned decisions granting bail to corruption suspects who were high-level leaders of opposition parties. Additionally corruption see section 4judicial inefficiency, lack of resources, and a large case backlog remained serious problems within the judiciary. On July 29, the Supreme Court's appellate Seeiing lifted the stay on a High Court ruling that an amendment to the constitution that legitimized martial law in the s was unconstitutional. Serking, there was no effort to prosecute those involved in declaring martial law.
Trial Procedures The woma provides accused persons with the right to be represented by counsel, to review accusatory material, to call or question witnesses, How to please a submissive woman to appeal verdicts. Cases are decided by judges rather than juries, and trials are public. In practice a public defender is rarely provided to defendants. Defendants are presumed innocent and have the right Seeking an outgoing woman in chittagong appeal, to be present, and to see the government's evidence.
Corruption and a substantial backlog woamn cases hindered the court system, and trials were typically marked by extended continuances that effectively prevented many defendants from obtaining fair trials due to witness tampering, victim intimidation, and missing evidence. Human rights observers stated that magistrates, attorneys, and court officials demanded bribes from defendants in many cases chittagng during the year. According to the National Human Rights Commission, 90 percent of those eventually brought to trial were not aoman. Political Prisoners and Detainees Former law outgoin Moudud Ahmed and former communications minister Anwar Hossain Manju remained Seekign on bail, although their cases remained in outgojng.
Ahmed refused the government's offer to drop the cases against him, and Manju continued to appeal two of his three sentences. The metropolitan public prosecutor decided to withdraw one of the cases against Ahmed for possessing alcohol at his residence in The High Court threw out one of Manju's convictions. During the year the court granted several continuances in the trial against journalist Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, who was detained for his attempted travel to Israel and who faced capital charges of "sedition, treason, and blasphemy.
During the year the government, through an interministerial committee, continued to identify and withdraw allegedly "politically motivated" cases initiated under the caretaker government. Initially, the majority of the cases recommended for withdrawal appeared to be those iutgoing against AL members. Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies Chittagonb and judicial remedies outgoint available for alleged wrongs. The government did not interfere with civil judicial procedures. Corruption and outside influence were problems in the civil judicial system. Alternative dispute resolution for civil cases allows citizens to present ohtgoing cases for mediation. According to government sources, wider chittagont of mediation in civil cases quickened the administration of justice, but there was no assessment of its fairness or impartiality.
Arbitrary Aoman with Privacy, Family, Home, outgoinv Correspondence The law allows intelligence and law enforcement agencies to monitor private communications with the permission of the chief executive of the MOHA. According to media reports, the government established outgoingg national monitoring center consisting of representatives from law enforcement and intelligence agencies to monitor and coordinate telephone taps in Media and human rights groups complained that the government continued to employ the practice of illegal telephone tapping. Police rarely obtained warrants as required, and officers violating these procedures were Personal dating coach chicago punished.
Human rights Mature pussy pics free indicated that the special branch of police, National Iutgoing Intelligence, and the Directorate General Forces Intelligence DGFI employed informers to conduct surveillance and report on citizens perceived as critical of the government. The government also routinely conducted surveillance on opposition politicians. Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including: Freedom inn Speech and Press The constitution provides for freedom of speech and press, but the government frequently failed to respect these rights in practice.
Although public criticism of the government was common, newspapers depended on government advertisements for a significant percentage of their Seeking. As a result, self-censorship by Girls no nude singles in osorno practiced was common. There chittagog hundreds of daily and weekly independent publications. Although there Sdeking improvements over the previous year, newspapers critical Seeeking the government still experienced government pressure. Journalists perceived to be critical of the government and those aligned with the opposition alleged Seeikng from unspecified wings of the security forces and members of the ruling party.
In addition to one official government-owned news service, there were two private news services. However, in May the information chittahong met with the owners of private television channels and suggested that they refrain from broadcasting content critical of the government. Channel One remained closed at year's end. On June 1, the deputy commissioner of Dhaka District ordered the closure of Amar Desh, an opposition newspaper, and the detention of its editor, Mahmudur Rahman, chigtagong for fraudulent editorial practices. Rahman remained in custody as chihtagong attempted to charge him Naked amatuer women in zrenjanin corruption or sedition.
Amar Desh was closed for more than a month as its otgoing negotiated the convoluted appeals system. The newspaper was publishing under a stay ordered by the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court, pending a final verdict on its status at year's end. On August 19, officials charged Qoman with contempt of court after he published a commentary critical of the courts' neutrality, and he was sentenced to six months in prison. At year's end, Rahman remained in Seeking a beautiful woman in agartala. Also on August 19, a second editor of Amar Desh, Waliullah Noman, was sentenced to one month in prison for an unrelated article criticizing the neutrality of two judicial appointments.
According to the attorney general, this was the first time that the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court sentenced journalists to Serking for contempt of court. The popular Bengali-language current affairs talk show, Point of Order, was removed from the air during the year. The iin previously alleged that she received telephone calls from individuals identifying Seekingg as DGFI officials who warned her against promoting "antigovernment and antistate propaganda. Before the cancellation of the show, she stated, it was practicing significant self-censorship in an attempt to remain on the air.
The government owned one radio station and one Seekong station. The parliament passed a law mandating that the public television station, BTV, remain the country's only terrestrial broadcast channel. An estimated 60 percent of the population did not have access to private satellite channels. There were 10 private satellite television stations and three private radio stations in operation. There were two foreign-based and licensed satellite television stations that maintained domestic news operations. Cable operators generally functioned without government interference; however, Diganta Television, a private operator, received a letter from the Ministry of Information warning it to edit content critical of the government or face a shutdown.
As of year's end, Diganta continued to operate. The government required all private stations to broadcast, without charge, selected government news programs and speeches by the prime minister. Both remained off the air as of the end of the year. The government issued new licenses to operate television channels to political supporters. This conformed to past practice and was not unique to the AL. Attacks on journalists continued to be a problem. There was an increase in individuals affiliated with the government or ruling party harassing, arresting, or assaulting journalists.
According to Odhikar and media watchdog groups, at least four journalists were killed, were injured, two were arrested, 43 were assaulted, 49 were threatened, and 12 had cases filed against them during the year. According to some journalists and human rights NGOs, journalists engaged in self-censorship due to fear of retribution from the government. On August 17, in Damurhuda upazila, activists from the AL's local student wing, the Chhatra League, attacked a local correspondent from the Bengali language daily, Amader Shomoy, allegedly for publishing a report critical of the group's activities in the area. On September 1, activists from the Rajshahi University branch of the Chhatra League used sticks to attack a reporter from the English language newspaper, the Daily Star, over reports critical of the organization's campus activities.
On September 25, an unknown assailant targeted the Rangpur correspondent from the Bengali-language Daily Jugantor and stabbed him in the back. The correspondent had published an article on tender manipulation by AL activists in the area during the year. His assailant remained at large at year's end. There were no further developments in the case of F. Masum, a reporter for the New Age newspaper. RABofficers arrested Masum and beat him in October Masum attempted to file a case, but was rebuffed. RAB headquarters released a statement expressing regret for the incident and transferred one of the officers involved.
There were no new developments in the case of Rabiul Islam, a journalist for the Rajshahi-based Bengali language Daily Sunshine, who allegedly was tortured by local police. There were no developments in the case of the Jai Jai Din editor who was fired in because he published a cartoon critical of then army chief general Moeen Uddin Ahmed. There were no new developments in the case of Jahangir Alam Akash, who authorities reportedly tortured in Akash ran his own Web log devoted to press freedoms and human rights during the year. Unlike in previous years, the government did not subject foreign publications and films to stringent reviews and censorship.
A government-managed film censor board reviewed local and foreign films and had the authority to censor or ban films on the grounds of state security, law and order, religious sentiment, obscenity, foreign relations, defamation, or plagiarism, but this was less strict than in the past. In practice video rental libraries and DVD shops stocked a wide variety of films, and government efforts to enforce censorship on rentals were sporadic and ineffective. Unlike in the previous year, the government only rarely exercised censorship in cases of immodest or obscene photographs, perceived misrepresentation or defamation of Islam, or objectionable comments regarding national leaders.
Internet Freedom Although individuals and groups generally could engage in the peaceful expression of views via the Internet, local human rights organizations reported continued government monitoring of Internet communications. The most recent figures from the World Bank indicated that 5. The government stated that the action was the result of pages depicting the Prophet Muhammed. Facebook was able to negotiate the reopening of the site which was again accessible as of June 5; however, pages other than those depicting the Prophet Muhammed also were blocked, including ones critical of the prime minister and the opposition leader.
Opposition leaders alleged that security forces have attempted to their collect personally identifiable information; however, these allegations were not independently verified. Academic Freedom and Cultural Events The government did little to limit academic freedom or cultural events; however, media groups reported that authorities discouraged research on sensitive religious and political topics. Additionally, on April 28, Dhaka University dismissed five teachers with BNP affiliations for overstaying their allotted leave, but failed to enforce the measure more broadly as teachers without BNP affiliations remained on leave. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association The constitution provides for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights in practice; however, at times the government limited freedom of assembly.
Freedom of Assembly The government generally permitted rallies to take place but on occasion used the criminal procedure code to prevent opposition political groups from holding meetings and demonstrations. The code authorizes the administration to ban assembly of more than four persons; according to ASK, the administration used this provision at least 93 times during the year. At times police or ruling party activists used force to disperse demonstrations. On July 28, the Dhaka Metropolitan Police issued an order banning all student protests in certain areas of the city, citing traffic concerns. All major political parties and student groups protested this ban, which remained in effect at year's end.
Police claimed that that the Jubo Dal failed to secure proper permission for the rally. At least 30 persons on both sides were injured. The Islamist Party, Jamaat-e-Islami, reported that its ability to secure permits for rallies or processions was severely hampered throughout the year. Local officials used the criminal procedure code prior to planned council meetings of the BNP to prevent clashes either between BNP and the ruling party or among rival factions of the BNP. In December ruling party activists and police attacked individuals at a reception in honor of Moyeen Khan's selection as a party leader. BNP supporters clashed with police and AL supporters, causing dozens of injuries.
No charges were filed before the end of the year. Freedom of Association The law provides for the right of every citizen to form associations, subject to "reasonable restrictions" in the interest of morality or public order, and the government generally respected this right. Individuals were free to join private groups. Unlike previous years under the state of emergency, trade unions were able to conduct their normal activities; however, the law made it nearly impossible to form new trade unions in many sectors, such as the ready-made garment industry. Freedom of Religion For a complete description of religious freedom, see the International Religious Freedom Report at www.
Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons The law provides for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice except in the cases of some opposition political figures. As the government moved to prosecute war crimes from the War of Independence, it created a list--consisting entirely of opposition party leaders--of those suspected of war crimes who it considered ineligible to travel outside the country. However, it did not move to strip these individuals of their passports.
Immigration officials at Hajrat Shah Jalal International Airport in Dhaka prevented numerous politicians belonging to the opposition BNP and Jamaat-e-Islami from leaving the country, citing the no-fly list and instructions from undisclosed higher authorities. Some of the politicians successfully challenged the unannounced restrictions on their travel abroad and managed to depart and return to the country. On three occasions, immigration officers barred senior BNP leaders from travelling abroad in violation of high court orders. Immigration officers told the Daily Star that they received verbal instructions to deny Chowdhury's travel.
On August 8, Shahiduddin Chowdhury Annie received similar treatment at the airport. Both individuals were on bail stemming from charges related to the BNP's general strike in June; however, both possessed high court permission to travel abroad. Both eventually were able to secure another court injunction and travel abroad. On September 14, BNP advisory committee member Reaz Rahman was stopped at the Dhaka airport as he attempted to board a flight to Kolkata and was told that his international travel was restricted by instructions from "higher authorities. The law does not provide for exile, which was not practiced. The country's passports were invalid for travel to Israel.
During the conflict throughout the s and s, the government relocated landless Bengalis from the plains, ensuring that the Jumma became a minority in the CHT. During this period, clashes with army-backed settlers displaced tens of thousands of Jumma within the country. The number of IDPs in the region is disputed. In a government task force estimated the number to bebut included nonindigenous persons in its estimate. During the same year, Amnesty International reported that there were approximately 60, IDPs, not counting the nonindigenous population.
In the government pledged assistance and reparation to those who lost their land during the conflict and set up a commission and task for rehabilitation of returnee Jumma IDPs and the elimination of military camps. According to IDMC, however, "as of December there were still approximately military camps in the region, and the work of the land commission and task force was hindered by lack of funding and human resources. The Hindu community in particular lost much of its land under the Vested Property Act, which authorized government confiscation of property from individuals it deemed "enemies of the state.
There is no systematic reporting on the treatment of these widely scattered IDPs. IDMC reported that "the army still holds authority over the general CHT administration, through an administrative order," and there are many reported cases of IDPs being subjected to arbitrary arrests, unlawful detentions, torture, rape, killings, and religious persecution. According to IDMC, "several reports indicate that these violations of the rights of indigenous people by settlers, sometimes with the involvement of security forces, have been systematic. According to the IDC, "the CHT Commission, composed of experts from inside and outside Bangladesh seeking to promote respect for human rights, democracy, participatory development, and land rights in the Hill Tracts, found that the lack of information and available lawyers to assist the indigenous people additionally hinder their access to justice.
Several shops, a church, a Buddhist temple and a village center also were burned. At least two indigenous people were killed, allegedly by army personnel, and dozens were injured. On October 5, the CHT Commission issued a press release in which it recommended that the government institute a high level independent inquiry into the arson attacks and killings, amend the CHT Land Dispute Settlement Commission Act in accordance with the articles of the CHT Accord, and "ensure that all future decisions of the Land Commission are made with the agreement of Pahari leaders who are members of the Commission. Protection of Refugees The country is not a party to the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees or the Protocol.
As a result, and in the absence of any national legislation, the law does not provide a legal framework for the granting of asylum or refugee status. The government had no formal system for providing protection to refugees. In practice the government provided some protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedoms would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. The government continued to deny asylum to Rohingya arriving from Burma. The government categorized them as illegal economic migrants and turned back many at the border; however, the border was porous, and attempts to stem the tide of migration proved unsuccessful.
According to the UNHCR, some of the individuals who were turned back likely were entitled to refugee status. Some unregistered persons in UNHCR camps returned to the country illegally after their official repatriation to Burma. On a number of occasions, local police detained unregistered persons outside the camps and imprisoned them under the Foreigners Act. Working with the UNHCR, the government provided temporary protection to approximately 28, registered Rohingya refugees at two official refugee camps and to individual asylum seekers that the UNHCR interviewed and recognized as refugees on a case-by-case basis. The UNHCR worked to resolve these discrepancies with the government and began a harmonization exercise in September, The initial results were mixed with UNHCR and the government agreeing to only approximately 40 percent of the cases, but the government was willing to work with UNHCR on negotiating the cases that remained.
According to international aid organizations active in the area, there were an estimatedtoRohingya not officially recognized as refugees living among the local population in the surrounding area of Teknaf and Cox's Bazar, including approximately 25, to 30, at an unofficial site adjacent to the official Kutupalong refugee camp. International NGOs generally were unable to work officially with unregistered refugees because the NGO Affairs Bureau refused to grant permission for such projects. There were no repatriations of Rohingya during the year. Working with the UNHCR, the government continued to improve conditions in refugee camps following findings in recent years that sanitation, nutrition, and shelter conditions had fallen below minimum international standards.
The government permitted the UNHCR to build replacements for shelters and latrines and permitted more NGOs to work in the camps on skills training, education, and health for residents. According to the UNHCR, there were cases of abuse against refugees, including rape, assault, domestic abuse, deprivation of food, arbitrary detention, and documentation problems. However, conditions in the camps continued to improve as sanitation, medical, and education facilities were built and improved. As in previous years, the government continued to ignore UNHCR requests to allow Rohingya refugees who were unable to return to Burma to work locally, obtain medical care, or attend school outside the camps.
In practice, however, the provision of basic services from the UNHCR and other NGOs meant that registered refugees often received better medical care than individuals in surrounding villages. The government insisted that all Rohingya refugees remain in camps until their return to Burma. It also has high resolution moving maps and live flight information. It is in two languages — English and Bengali. Biman launched a frequent-flyer programnamed Biman Loyalty Club, in November It offers rewards such as tiered benefits, mileage bonuses, extra baggage, lounge access and priority check-in at airports.
E-ticketing has enabled major airlines to provide online check-in facilities, reducing the need to queue up at check-in counters. However, Biman has not made any attempts to improve customer service through the adoption of e-ticketing, although it has been able to reduce its own costs. The private operators increased their share of the cargo market by An investigation in uncovered irregularities in a number of Biman's Middle East operations which deprived the government of millions of dollars in revenue. Biman officials in Dubai were found to have been "extending special privileges" to the main freight handler in exchange for bribes. A number of arrests were made but the perpetrators evaded punishment through lack of evidence and pressure from the CAAB union.
Former Biman board director Kazi Oahedul Alam criticised the expansion as poorly planned and not commercially viable. According to experts, these aircraft were inadequately equipped to safely cross the Atlantic. The FAA eventually admitted it was mistaken and apologised for the error. Biman was given until 25 October extended from an earlier deadline of 23 March to resume flights to the airport by the JFK airport authority, after which it would have lost the landing slot permanently. Biman has been the sole Bangladeshi airline permitted by the government to provide flights for pilgrims to King Abdulaziz International AirportJeddah.
Every year, the commencement of these flights is inaugurated by high-ranking government officials, including, at times, the Prime Minister. Biman's handling of Hajj flights has also been beset with troubles. Inthe State Minister for Civil Aviation and Tourism resigned after complaints that he set fares too high. Once the situation was resolved, Biman was then unable to offer the required number of flights to cope with the backlog of passengers.